by Rossana Scrivo, Massimiliano Vasile, Izabella Bartosiewicz, Guido Valesini
Inflammation is classically recognized as an essential step for the control of microbial invasion or tissue injury as well as for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis under a variety of noxious conditions. One of the most intriguing aspect of studying inflammation is the plurality of the inflammatory mediators that are continuously discovered (microRNAs, adipokines, inflammasomes and the danger signals, etc.) and their effects on target tissues. Several studies have demonstrated that inflammatory response represents the “common soil” of the multifactorial diseases, encompassing both chronic inflammatory rheumatic disorders and a wide variety of conditions including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, cancer, asthma, and ageing. While the inflammatory response observed in the rheumatic disorders seems to be triggered by infection and injury, i.e. the main inducers of inflammation, in the other conditions mentioned it appears to be supported by tissue malfunction or homeostatic imbalance.
In the present review, we discuss the data emerged from research on inflammatory mediators sustaining multifactorial diseases.